Verbs-Part 2: The Forms of Verbs and Kinds of Sentences

 



The Tenses of Verbs

There are three main tenses of verbs—the Present Simple, the Past Simple, and the Present Perfect.

 In the Present Simple, we use the Base Form of the Verb. In the Past Simple, of course, we use the Past form of the Verb, and in the Present Perfect, we use the Past Participle Form of the verb.

 Present Simple:

Jack cleans the room every day.

The verb cleans is in the base form. Jack is not cleaning the room right now, but anyway, Jack cleans the room regularly; Jack cleans it every day.

 If an action is a regular action, or if it is a fact, if it is a schedule, we use the Present Simple Sentence, and the verb is in the Base Form.

 More examples:

Jack goes to the grocery store every morning.

He reads a book every night.

Jenny loves snow.

 How do we ask and answer questions in the Present Simple Form? Take a look at the following examples.

 Anne: Does Jack go to the grocery store every morning?

Jane: Yes, Jack goes to the grocery store every morning.

 Anne: Does he read a book every night?

Jane: Yes, he reads a book every night.

 Anne: Does Jenny love snow?

Jane: Yes, Jenny loves snow.

 How do we ask and answer questions in the Negative Present Simple Form? Take a look at the following examples. 

 Anne: Does Jack go to the grocery store every morning?

Jane: No, Jack does not go to the grocery store every morning. He goes to the grocery store only every Saturday.

OR:

Short Answer: No, he doesn’t. He goes there only every Saturday.

 Anne: Does he read a book every night?

Jane: No, he doesn’t read a book every night. He reads a book only every Sunday.

 Anne: Does Jenny love snow?

Jane: No, Jenny doesn’t love snow. She hates snow.

 

 Past Simple

We use the Past Simple Form when we want to talk about an action that was completed. It’s done, it’s over, it’s complete.

 Example:

Jack cleaned his room last night.

Jack went to the grocery store this morning.

 Do we really need to use a Past Time Expression when we use the Past Simple Sentence? NOT NECESSARILY.

 Examples:

Beth ate the cookie and drank the milk.

In the example above, there is no time expression (last night, yesterday, last year, etc.), but we know that the action is complete because the verbs are in the past form.

 More examples:

The dog barked at the shadows.

The cat smelled the fish.

The baby cried.

 All three sentences above express an action that was completed.

 Present Perfect

This is a bit complicated, and we will discuss this more and more in my next blog posts.

 The Present Perfect is formed by using Have (for plural subject) or Has (for singular subject) PLUS the Past Participle form of the verb.

 Example:

I have eaten lunch.

 There are two instances when we may use the Present Perfect.

 1.    When we want to talk about an action that has a result now.

 Example:

Anne: The door is open, please close it.

Jane: Okay (Jane closes the door.) I have closed the door.

 I have closed the door= The door is not open anymore.

2.    When we talk about an experience

Anne: Have you eaten raw fish?

Jane: Yes, I have eaten raw fish.

This means, Jane, in her life, already experienced eating raw fish. Maybe she will eat it again in the future, or maybe she will decide not to eat it anymore but anyway, the point is, at one point in her life, she experienced eating raw fish.


Japanese Translation By: Google Translate

 

  動詞時制

 動詞には、現在形過去形現在完了形3つの時制があります。

 現在形では、動詞基本形使用します。もちろん、過去形では動詞過去形使用し、現在完了形では動詞過去分詞形使用します。

 現在形

Jack cleans the room every day.

 動詞cleans基本形式です。ジャックは現在部屋掃除していませんが、とにかく、ジャックは定期的部屋掃除しています。ジャックは毎日それを掃除します。

 アクションが通常のアクションである場合、またはそれがである場合、それがスケジュルである場合現在形使用し、動詞基本フォムにあります。

 その

 Jack goes to the grocery store every morning.

He reads a book every night.

Jenny loves snow.

 現在形質問したり回答したりするにはどうすればよいですか?てください。

 Anne: Does Jack go to the grocery store every morning?

Jane: Yes, Jack goes to the grocery store every morning.

 

Anne: Does he read a book every night?

Jane: Yes, he reads a book every night.

 

Anne: Does Jenny love snow?

Jane: Yes, Jenny loves snow.

 ネガティブ現在形質問したり、質問えたりするにはどうすればよいですか?てください。

 Anne: Does Jack go to the grocery store every morning?

Jane: No, Jack does not go to the grocery store every morning. He goes to the grocery store only every Saturday.

OR:

Short Answer: No, he doesn’t. He goes there only every Saturday.

 

Anne: Does he read a book every night?

Jane: No, he doesn’t read a book every night. He reads a book only every Sunday.

 

Anne: Does Jenny love snow?

Jane: No, Jenny doesn’t love snow. She hates snow.

 過去形

完了したアクションについてしたいときは、過去単純形使用します。完了し、終了し、完了しました。

 Example:

Jack cleaned his room last night.

Jack went to the grocery store this morning.

 過去単純文使用する場合過去時間表現使用する必要がありますか?ずしも。

 Examples:

Beth ate the cookie and drank the milk.

 上記では、時間表現昨夜昨日昨年など)はありませんが、動詞過去形であるため、アクションが完了していることがわかります。

 More examples:

The dog barked at the shadows.

The cat smelled the fish.

The baby cried.

 上記3つのはすべて、完了したアクションをしています。

 現在完了


これは少し複雑です。これについては、次のブログ投稿でますます説明します。

 現在完了形は、Have(複数形の場合)またはHas(単数形の場合)に加えて、動詞の過去分詞形を使用して形成されます。

 例:

昼食を食べました。

 現在完了形を使用できる場合が2つあります。

 1.今結果が出ている行動について話したいとき。

Example:

Anne: The door is open, please close it.

Jane: Okay (Jane closes the door.) I have closed the door.

 I have closed the door= The door is not open anymore.

2.経験について話すとき

Anne: Have you eaten raw fish?

Jane: Yes, I have eaten raw fish.


これは、ジェーンが人生ですでに生の魚を食べたことを経験したことを意味します。将来また食べるかもしれないし、もう食べないことにするかもしれないが、とにかく、人生のある時点で生の魚を食べた経験があるのがポイント。



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